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Arunachal Pradesh with a massive 94% rural population is the largest state in the North-East India. Consequently, the economy of the state is based of agriculture. Jhum cultivation and Terrace farming are the major patterns that the farmers employ to uplift agriculture in Arunachal Pradesh. In Jhum cultivation, lands are prepared by cutting down or burning the unwanted cultivation, while in terrace farming hilly cultivated lands are shaped into multiple terraces to prevent soil erosion and quick runoff of water.

Out of 83,74,200 hectares, agriculture in Arunachal Pradesh occupies only 1.10 lakh hectares under Jhum cultivation and 90 lakh hectares under permanent cultivation. The net sown area is 1.97 lack ha with gross sown area of 2.40 ha and cropping intensity (%) of 122. The topography and climate of Arunachal Pradesh is conducive for the cultivation of rice, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane and potatoes.

The agro-climatic conditions also promote Horticulture in Arunachal Pradesh, producing tropical and sub-tropical fruits like Apple, Pineapple, Orange, Pear, Plums, Chestnut, Walnut, Guava, etc. Other major Horticultural products in Arunachal Pradesh are bamboo, spices, aromatic and medicinal plants, ginger, cardamom and mushroom.

Paddy, millet and maize are the major crops. The indigenous vegetables are sweet potatoes, brinjal, ginger, chillies, pumpkin, cucumber, and local cowpea. Pine apple, oranges, lemon, lichi, papaya, banana and peach walnut, almond etc are also grown in Arunachal.